The National Research and Innovation Strategy for Smart Specialization of the Czech Republic 2021 – 2027 (National RIS3 Strategy) ensures effective targeting of funds primarily from European, national and territorial budgets to support oriented and applied research and innovation. Support is directed to selected priority areas that have a high potential for creating a long-term competitive advantage of the Czech Republic based on the use of knowledge and innovation. The identification and development of these prospective areas, i.e. "intelligent specialization", is based on the strengths of the Czech Republic and individual regions. It strives for targeted "smart" use of the opportunities offered by our economic background and research and innovation capacities. At the same time, the weaknesses of the innovation system are addressed, which represent barriers to the development of the innovation environment as a whole.