We see societal challenges as trends that are difficult to influence, threaten people’s quality of life, but can also be opportunities to improve it. Societal challenges cannot be addressed by one isolated measure but must be addressed by multiple actors working towards a common goal, responding flexibly and coordinating their activities. This is the mission-oriented approach. Therefore, responding to key societal challenges and megatrends in the form of missions is part of the priorities of the 2021-2027 National RIS3 Strategy. The RIS3-relevant mission themes are part of the sectoral and technological themes prioritised by the National RIS3 Strategy.